Continuing Professional Development (CPD) or Continuing Professional Education (CPE) is the means by which people maintain their knowledge and skills related to their professional lives. It is continuing education (CE) as applied to professional development. CPD obligations are common to most professions. Many professions define CPD as a structured approach to learning to help ensure competence to practice, taking in knowledge, skills and practical experience. CPD can involve any relevant learning activity, whether formal and structured or informal and self-directed.